Aluno: Fabrício Henrique Rodrigues
Orientadora: Profª. Drª. Mara Abel
Título: An Ontological Framework for Events as Transitions among Situations
Linha de Pesquisa: Inteligência Artificial – Representação de conhecimento e raciocínio
Esta banca ocorrerá excepcionalmente de forma totalmente remota. Interessados em assistir a defesa poderão acessar a sala virtual através do link: mconf.ufrgs.br/webconf/00006784
– Prof. Dr. Giancarlo Guizzardi (Free Univ. of Bozen-Bolzano – UNIBZ – Itália)
– Prof. Dr. Adrien Barton (Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse – IRIT – França)
– Profª. Drª. Renata de Matos Galante (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS – Brasil)
Presidente da Banca: Profª. Drª. Mara Abel
Abstract: Events are broadly defined as things that happen in time involving continuants as participants. Besides that, there are some trends regarding the happening nature of events. One of them is what we call the transition view, which regards an event as a transition among situations (i.e., instantaneous, particular configurations of some part of reality that is understood as a whole). Another is what we call the manifestation view, according to which events are manifestations of certain properties (in special, dispositions) of their participants. Current ontologies offer rich support to build a great variety of intended models of events according to this account. However, they does not seem so effective in constraining unintended models of events. If the role of ontologies involves carving reality at its joints, we believe that identifying suitable constraints over the notion of event can reveal informative patterns to compose an ontological framework to guide the process of analyzing and modeling this type of entity. Thus, in this work, we adopt the transition view of events and use of the notion of system (i.e., a set of causally interconnected objects) as the invariant element that is present in each of the successive situations in the course of an event. With that, we propose the notion of system-invariant event as the transition among situations that consist in snapshots of a single system at different times. The participants of the event are the components of the invariant system and the connections that unify such a system are defined in terms of the relationships between participants that contribute to activating the dispositions that are manifested in the event. With that, we provide criteria to decide whether or not a succession of situations correspond to a genuine event (i.e., being a succession of snapshots of a system) and to decide which are the participants of an event at each time (i.e., the continuants that are part of the delimiting system at the time). Based on that, we derive some types of event according to whether the system that delimits it is open or closed to the entry/exit of components and/or amounts of basic ontological substrate (i.e., the stuff that ultimately constitutes objects). We also have auxiliary events corresponding to the entry/exit of participants in open-system events. Besides that, we also derive 5 types of event according to the pattern of variation among the situations (i.e., stasis, qualitative change, identity change, creation, and destruction).
Keywords: Ontologies. Events. Processes. Systems. Dispositions.